Tag Archives: USA

The Decade Volcanoes


As I reblogged my last post, a revision of the Decade volcano list by the authors of VolcanoCafe, I thought before I bring you the new list I should really explain what the original one actually was!

As mentioned in one of my earliest articles, the list was complied in 1990 by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) a nongovernmental society. The aim was to select the worlds most hazardous volcanoes and put measures in place to keep a closer eye on them and raise awareness across the globe on the threats they pose, for a decade (1991-2000 The UN’s International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction). Based on varied criteria from historic eruptions to local populations, the following made the cut;

Figure 1. USGS map of the decade volcanoes.

15 Years on the list is still going all though monitoring in some areas may have slackened slightly. It has seen some success such as the diversion of a lava flow on Etna back in 1992 and has helped form a better understanding of phreatic eruptions on Taal. It has sadly also come at great loss on several occasions as well. Despite increased monitoring of Unzen in 1991 pyroclastic flows killed 43 including volcanologists Katia and Maurice Krafft and Harry Glicken.  And even closer to the project, in 1993 the Decade Volcano conference took place in Pasto, Columbia an expedition from the conference to the Galeras crater occurred on February 14th when the volcano suddenly erupted. 3 tourists and 6 volcanologists including Professor Geoff Brown, Head of Department of Earth Science at the Open University, all lost their lives.

Many volcanologist are sceptics and/or critics of the program, hence the call for a revamp. Personally I feel any thing which promotes volcanic awareness is great all though there are some which need much more than others. Volcanoes are ever evolving and unlike most geological features can change in minutes rather than millennia and therefore prehaps a decade is too long for reviews of such a program. I know which have made my list, it will be interesting to see what makes the cut for the guys at VolcanoCafe!

Figure 1. http://listas.20minutos.es/lista/volcanes-de-la-decada-decade-volcanoes-301649/


Today in Geological History; 17th January – Northridge and Nyiragongo


The Northridge Earthquake 1994

At 4.30 am local time, the residents of the San Fernando Valley region of L.A were awoken by a shallow magnitude 6.7 earthquake. It is estimated to be one of the most costly natural disasters the state has faced causing up to 40 billon US dollars and killed over 60 people.

The earthquake struck along a fault line which was previously unknown off, the Northridge blind thrust fault. It produced the highest ever recorded ground motions at the time and literally threw many buildings off their foundations. It sparked greater mapping of the L.A fault systems so places could be better prepared for further destructive quakes in the future.

Some of the most dramatic pictures of the destruction came from the many freeways and interstates which suffered structural failure and/or collapse.

One of the most unusual outcomes of this earthquake was the outbreak of coccidioimycosis, or more commonly known as Valley fever. There were over 200 cases reported in the weeks after the quake and 3 fatalitites. Valley fever is a respiratory disease brought on by airborne spores of fungus. It is thought that landslides caused by the earthquake sent a cloud of the spores in the the air which the wind carried to surrounding areas.


Nyiragongo 2002

After months of increased activity at the stratovolcano in the DRC, a 13 km fissure opened along the southern flank of Nyiragongo in a matter of hours. The fissure reached all the way down to the town of Goma and Lake Kivu.

Over 400,000 people were evacuated from Goma and the surrounding area, many across the border to Rwanda. Despite these efforts 147 were killed, mainly from asphyxiation and some from collapsing buildings from volcanic tremors. About 4,500 buildings were destroyed in Goma and two-thirds of its airport left unusable as lava devoured the run ways.

When the flows reached Lake Kivu, due to the high gas emissions, a new fear was put in place. Similar to events at Lake Nyos 1986, there was a chance that the high emissions of carbon dioxide and methane could be stored in the lake waters and released lethal limnic eruption. Although this was not the case there have been numerous cases in the area around Nyrigongo of particularly children dying from asphyxiation due to random degassing of the volcano. An experimental syphon was put in place in 2001 to try to limit the amount of gas in the bottom waters, but it was not untill 2004 when an energy company wanted to harness the gas as a resource, did any really system come in to place to limit the risk of limnic eruption.

Nyrigongo is one of the 17 decade volcanoes, ones believed to pose greatest risk to human life. Caused by a mixture of rifting and hot spot activity, unlike many volcanoes of its kind, its lavas have an extreamly low silica content. Predominately melilite nephelinite, instead if more common more common basalts, it is extreamly fluid and can reach speed on average of 100 km/ph. It has also had a near constantlty active lava lake giving us the gentle reminder that it can fatally burst to life at any time.


1. Http://dart2.arc.nasa.gov

2. http://m.utsandiego.com/news/2014/jan/15/northridge-earthquake-anniversary-20/

3. http://www.unisdr.org/2006/ppew/info-resources/ewc2/UK/galerie/pg000057.htm

4. http://www.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos577/projects/kayzar/html/nyiragongo_volcano.html