Category Archives: Open University

Back to Masaya!


Hi All.

As you may now I am nearing the end of my eventful journey with the Open University and next February I will embark on my final module Science Project Course – Geosciences, or better known in brick universities as my dissertation.

Of all the things I have done along my journey, working with Earthwatch on Masaya has been the most inspirational and thought provoking. It has changed my view on how volcanoes are monitored and what we perceive to be a geohazard.

For this reason I am aiming to go back in 2017 and base my dissertation around the work done monitoring geophysical changes to the volcano versus the rate of degassing.

If you would like to help fund this research and the great work Earthwatch do on Masaya please do so below.

Thank you for all your help and support.


The Decade Volcanoes


As I reblogged my last post, a revision of the Decade volcano list by the authors of VolcanoCafe, I thought before I bring you the new list I should really explain what the original one actually was!

As mentioned in one of my earliest articles, the list was complied in 1990 by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) a nongovernmental society. The aim was to select the worlds most hazardous volcanoes and put measures in place to keep a closer eye on them and raise awareness across the globe on the threats they pose, for a decade (1991-2000 The UN’s International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction). Based on varied criteria from historic eruptions to local populations, the following made the cut;

Figure 1. USGS map of the decade volcanoes.

15 Years on the list is still going all though monitoring in some areas may have slackened slightly. It has seen some success such as the diversion of a lava flow on Etna back in 1992 and has helped form a better understanding of phreatic eruptions on Taal. It has sadly also come at great loss on several occasions as well. Despite increased monitoring of Unzen in 1991 pyroclastic flows killed 43 including volcanologists Katia and Maurice Krafft and Harry Glicken.  And even closer to the project, in 1993 the Decade Volcano conference took place in Pasto, Columbia an expedition from the conference to the Galeras crater occurred on February 14th when the volcano suddenly erupted. 3 tourists and 6 volcanologists including Professor Geoff Brown, Head of Department of Earth Science at the Open University, all lost their lives.

Many volcanologist are sceptics and/or critics of the program, hence the call for a revamp. Personally I feel any thing which promotes volcanic awareness is great all though there are some which need much more than others. Volcanoes are ever evolving and unlike most geological features can change in minutes rather than millennia and therefore prehaps a decade is too long for reviews of such a program. I know which have made my list, it will be interesting to see what makes the cut for the guys at VolcanoCafe!

Figure 1.

OUGS Talk; John Murray on Etna


One of the perks of studying geoscience with the Open University is it has a very active Geological Society. Although I joined and went to the odd talk towards the start of my degree, as with many other things, life gets in the way. When I heard the speaker of April’s meeting though it was impossible to not jump at the chance to go….

Figure 1. Mount Etna with the city of Catania in the foreground

On my trip to Masaya back in February I had the privilege of working with John Murray, Visiting Research Fellow at the Open University. A geophysicist, he has worked predominantly on Mount Etna for over forty years. In that time monitoring techniques have moved on greatly, as has much else with the development of technology. This however does not mean proven techniques are not equally, and in some cases, more effective than the new. John specialises in leveling, dry tilt and more recently GPS monitoring of Etna which gives us high precision ground deformation data. For years John secured funding from NERC and many other sources to map the volcanoes deformation. In later years research has become self funded such is his drive to discover the inner workings of the Mediterranean giant.

Figure 2. A map showing the volcanoes of Italy. Etna is the only one laying of the island of Sicily.

Figure 3. John levelling on Masaya.

The other night John addressed the London branch of the Open University Geological Society (LOUGS), to tell them about his work and what he believes 45 years worth of data suggests.

Etna began to erupt roughly 300,000 years at the Val Calanna centre south-west of current activity. Subsequent activity moved on to theTrifoglietto 1 and the Trifoglietto 2 centres before its current position about 170,000 years ago which is sometimes refered to as Mongibello as depicted in figure 4.

Figure 4. Proposed migration Etna based on previous volcanic centers

The Valle Del Bovo is a prominent feature on Etna. The U-shaped depression many believe depict structural failures of the flank along the line of migration of volcanic centres. What John has suggested based on his high precision mapping is that it is not the magma source that is moving but the topography which is slipping seaward.

Also as ground deformation does not following Mogi models (a mathematical model which links changes within a magma chamber to topographical changes), it is being suggested that Etna does not have an appreciable magma chamber, rather taking its material straight from the mantle like a hot spot. This idea is chemically supported by the fact the main igneous rock produced by Etna is Hawaiite; which is compositionally similar to mantle rock.

John is yet to publish his findings in full so I won’t give away any more. It’s safe to say though it is sure to change our views of Etna’s dynamics. John’s passion in his quest to uncover Etna’s secrets is truly inspirational, especially to an aspiring volcanologist like myself. I can’t wait to work on her flanks with him next August.

Figure 5. Eruption February 23rd 2013.

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Figure 3; Authors own.

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